DETLUP Book / Russian language

The European integration and the enlargement of the European Union bring many new issues not only to the new member and associate states of the Union but are also a challenge for its older members. The political, economic and social implications of these processes are evident at every step. Simplifying the transport of goods, increasing the population mobility, realisation of transnational and transcontinental infrastructure projects, unifying the legal and economic environment. The Competitive struggle of municipalities and regions to compete for investors offering job opportunities, to recruite residents, visitors, or access to public infrastructure becoming sharper. This situation has been sharpened in recent years by the global world crisis and is heavily influenced by conflicts. And exactly in this context, the role of spatial planning is increasingly being discussed at European level as part of the legal environment that determines its socio-economic attractiveness and the stability of investments.

An important aspect of the spatial planning preparation is public participation. The book is illustrated by the propositions the city's citizens to improve its functioning. They have been prepared free of charge and spontaneously within the City Intervention projects in several Slovak towns.

DETLUP / Moldova / Kišinev and Komrat

9th—11th June 2016

Development through Land Use Planning

DETLUP / Rzeszow / Poland


Development through Land Use Planning

Spatial Planning

Dušan Burák
Architectural Studio Atrium, Košice, Technical University in Košice, Slovak Republic

A continuous interaction between man and the environment, nature and civilization, the past, and the future, leads to a permanent transformation of the material environment so that it meets the complex needs of the society in the best possible way, in order not to hinder its development, but rather to stimulate a social initiative.
Thus, the development of the society enforces a change of the environment in which the life process takes place. The interaction between society and the environment is most pronounced in settlements, in the most concentrated social activity environment. The cities have been and are, in the same time, the focus and expression of almost everything created by human society. At the same time, the cities were and still are expressions of many negative feataures like social inequalities poor environmental quality, egoism, wars, and so on.
As a result of city growths and their strengthening, the depopulation of the countryside is increasing. It brings both benefits and problems too. Worldwide around 150,000 people move daily. In 2016 there were around 7 billion inhabitants in the world, and until 2050, the United Nations estimates an increase to 8–10.5 billions, of which 60% is in Asia, 25% in Africa, and 5% in Europe. Around 50% of world inhabitants lived in the cities, until 2050 this number will increase to 70%. In the developed countries, this share is higher, namely 75% and will be 86%, in Slovakia it is 55% and it is expected to be 70%.

Expansion of the city – example from London
/ the development of identical part of the city between 1750–1862–1946 until now /

The Urbanism – a section that is a synthesis of science, technology and art is helping instrument that guides and shapes these phenomena and processes while Spatial Planning is a tool for its enforcement and implementation (hereinafter the " SP").
The European Spatial Planning Charter characterizes the SP as a geographical projection of the economic, social and cultural policies of the society and its environmental policies, while being understood as a scientific section, management and governance tool and policy technique developed as an interdisciplinary, all-encompassing approach focused to balance spatial development and its physical organization In line with a comprehensive Sustainable Development Strategy.
It is easier to understand the meaning and the significance of the SP by explaining what it should prevent : natural, uncultivated, degrading and damaging, unethical, un-esthetic and unefficient economic development, simply prevent all inappropriate ways of using it.
SP is therefore an important tool for influencing of territorial development in order to ensure the consistency of all natural and civilizational elements present in the site of interest. The comprehensive activity requires professionals whose profile changes over time. The main coordinator is an urban planner, who also acts as a mediator and who collaborates with professionals from other sectors and professions.

General thesis of spatial planning
Due to the relatively stable character of the natural conditions, the civilization factors have a dynamic character, which is manifested mainly by increasing the demands for the use of the individual parts of the territory.
With regard to the possibility of contradictions between stable natural conditions and rapidly changing demands of the society and the emergence of possible conflicts, the SP has a very improtant role.
The SP is part of the legal system of the society. In a democratic society, the Territorial Plan represents the way – a form of social agreement on the territory, and from a legal point of view it is a land use law that gives the citizens certainty that the territory will be used in terms of the five „E“: economically, efficiently, ethically, aesthetically and ecologically.
By complying with such planning principles, the functioning of civil society is enforced where dominates the authority of agreed rules ( valid for all) and not rules of the authority ( valid only purposefully for some).
- Based on the Council of Europe's material, the SP ha- s
Democratic character
 – ensures the participation of residents and their elected representatives in the preparation and outputs of the SP; It follows into position of a regulatory instrument rather than a directive one,

  • global – complex character – it creates a spatial territorial system, coordinating sectoral interests,
  • Functional – Effective – Takes into account regional awareness and the constitutional reality of the state,
  • prospective – analyzes long-term trends and economic, environmental, social and cultural visions
  • Permanent – Provides three phases of activity: creation of idea, planning, implementation.

In the V4 countries today, we basically deviate from the direct link of the SP to the state budget or the budget of the municipality. The system of spatial development policy in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, Germany and Austria is currently based on an ex-ante philosophy of approach with the dominance of prudent planning steps, whereas planning systems in the UK or in the Netherlands are much more focused on response to the current demands of territorial Development, ie by the ex post method. The following articles and information will try to respond where did we get today, whether the SP is a sufficient tool for the development of settlements and the society and how its link to strategic planning.

Local strategic economic and social plan – introductory article

Gejza Legen
Občianske združenie UzemnePlany.Sk, Košice, Slovenská republika

The growth of settlement and urbanisation in human history was always full of challenges. In medieval times one of the greatest challenges (besides defence) was the public health. A plague or „black death“ decimated the towns and cities of Europe and led to de-population of large areas. The name of the inventor of the sewage system is probably lost in the history but its planning and operation actually saved numerous lives. Thus, not health service improvement or invention of penicillin led to major improvement of public health but city development and urban planning. The word „planning“ in first years after the so called „velvet revolution“ in Cezchoslovakia reminded the people of the „five years communist type plans“ a governance tool, strictly controlled and usually with more than 100% success rate at implementation. The democratic changes thus brought a difficult starting position for strategic planning processes. The „open gates“ to West, communication, fulfillment of „acquis communitaire“ and numerous sectorial trainings slowly brought their fruits. The state, municipal and civil institutions started to plan their future , their development.

What was first, the hen or the egg ? Loving the Jura dinosaurs personally I am convinced that the egg was here before the hen, however that is not an issue. How to start with our strategies : with the problems or with our dreams and visions ? Both, bottom to top and from top to bottom approaches work, it is always good to have a „visionary“ in the group of planners, even better if the visionaire is a decision maker, a mayor ! However, equally important is to have „on board“ analysts, methodists, practicioners, doubters and enquirers who often and loudly ask : „Why, why, why ?“. So how to start ? There are many methodologies for economic and social strategic planning, similar or identical planning approaches are used for example also for WHO Healthy cities network for health planning. Most of these methods have several phases :

  1. Analytical phase uses well designed scientific and communication methods (often utilising specific indicators) whose aim is to collect as much information about the subject as possible. In several areas, the best methods to obtain data is to simply measure them against the set standard or just to mark the value. A comparative analyses that will clearly say how close or far is the phenomena or situation to the set, or generally accepted standard. These collected data and information can state whether the situation is good or bad and what are the casuses of this state or sitaution. The SWOT analysis are usually parts of these methods and among other enable also effective public participation in the planning process. A process of facilitated brainstorming, public hearings, agoras, world caffes, open space events, city parliament meetings – all can help us to reach the „vox populi“. Accumulation of problems to be solved also mean that you need to conduct „cause and effect“ analysis, problem grouping and last but not least problem ranking (which is the most urgent and most improtant one?). Once you have identified the most important and urgent problems (supported by good consensus of expert and citizens) you can set up priority areas. Most usually they will be in the following sectors :
  • Natural and urban environment (air, water, gree, fauna, wilderness, biotops, wetlands, climate…)
  • Social issues (unemployment, employment, poverty, crime, public health, education, housing…
  • Economic issues ( production sectors, transport, polution and waste, innovation, science, energy, business, trade,
  1. Strategic phase . One very usefull tool for stratetic planning is the „problem tree“ method. The problem is most commonly defined as negative state or barrier. A simple but smart conversion of elementary problems can convert them into hierarchy of objectives. Despite being a simple tool it is not always simple to use it. Crown of the strategic planning is the vision. There are several wyas how to prepare the vision, one of the best approaches is however „the Future Search workshop“. Some methodologies recognize in strategic planning several parts (e.g. strategic parts with strategic objectives and priorities and program part with measures and activities or work packages).
  2. Action or Implementation Phase consist mainly of the action plan with detailed description of tasks, outputs, responsibilities (who, will do what and when). A good Action plan usually has a budgetary part where resoruces are granted to specified tasks. This part is often called „Financial Plan“. The Program is reflected in monitoring and evaluation system of the program performance with the provision of measurable indicators, topical and time schedule for implementation of the program through action plans.

Most common reasons of failure with strategic planning :

  • The plan is ellaborated as „desk study“ without real analysis and public participation
  • The plan is deformed by opportunistic desires and personal interests
  • The plan is primarly ellaborated to access opportunistic funding (EU sources)
  • The plan has weak consistence and internal structure (the realisation of activities can not lead to the achievement of goals and objectives
  • The vision is proclamatory neither real, realistic nor inspiratory
  • The priorities and objectives blindly follow the objectives of the higher administrative structure
  • The action plan is „toothless“ no real finance is allocated to its implementation.
  • The financial plan is „on the water“ the access to resources is not granted
  • There is poorly designed implementation structure (no staff is allocated to management and monitoring)
  • There is not appropriate or missing political committment (mayor to „busy“ to be present at planning and implementation stage)
  • There is lack of support for implementation in the City Parliament (no consensus through the political agenda)
  • The monitoring and evaluation system of plan implementation is not functional
  • The change management is poor (as consequence of missing plan management).
  • The plan is not supported by other institutions / bodies than municipality = due to the failure to motivate and provide incentives for partners
  • There is missing „success stories“ from Plan implementation
  • A system of measureable indicators is not updated and sustained.
  • Poor publicity and marketing of the plan
  • Risk identification, mitigation and management is poor
  • The plan does not resolve or addresses real life problems (bad initial analysis and poor public participation).
  • Incorrect understanding of „trends“

Kickoff meeting

17. septembra 2015 v čase od 10:00 do 16:00 hodiny v priestoroch o.z. UzemnePlany.Sk / Architektonické štúdio ATRIUM, Mlynská 27, 040 01 Košice.

Jedným z predpokladov dobrého spravovania územia na miestnej a regionálnej úrovni sú transparentné pravidlá striktne dodržiavané zo strany samosprávy, úradov, podnikateľov a občanov. Aby bolo možné zodpovedne umiestniť obchodné centrá, priemyselné a logistické areály, ale aj bytové a rodinné domy, služby, či turistické vybavenie, zeleň a pod., je potrebné mať schválený a všeobecne rešpektovaný územný plán.

Územný plán utvára predpoklady pre trvalý súlad všetkých činností v území s osobitným zreteľom na starostlivosť o životné prostredie, dosiahnutie ekologickej rovnováhy a zabezpečenia trvalo udržateľného rozvoja pre šetrné využívanie prírodných zdrojov, a pre zachovanie prírodných, civilizačných a kultúrnych hodnôt.

Dobrý územný plán:

  • sústavne a komplexne rieši priestorové usporiadanie a funkčné využívanie územia,
  • stanovuje urbanistickú koncepciu rozvoja územia, rešpektujúc jeho hodnoty,
  • spĺňa potreby rôznych zainteresovaných strán a používateľov,
  • umožňuje participáciu občanov v procese rozhodovania,
  • umožňuje komfortné spravovanie sídla a regiónu,
  • poskytuje priestor a jasný signál pre investorov.

Projekt DETLUP, podporený Višegrádskym fondom si kladie za cieľ poskytnúť partnerstvu krajín východnej Európy – Ukrajina, Moldavsko a Gruzínsko cenné informácie a skúsenosti pre územný, hospodársky a sociálny rozvoj ich samospráv.

Cieľom projektu je vzájomne obohatiť vedomostnú základňu z prípravy a uplatňovania územného plánu na úrovni miestnej a regionálnej samosprávy, mimovládnych organizácií ale aj urbanistov.

Projekt sa bude realizovať prostredníctvom vzdelávacích seminárov v zainteresovaných mestách na Ukrajine, v Moldavsku a v Gruzínsku, ktoré sa zamerajú na:

  1. právne predpisy regulujúce územné plánovanie v krajinách V4,
  2. účasť verejnosti a zainteresovaných strán v procese územného plánovania,
  3. technické prostriedky a metódy používané pre vypracovanie územného plánu. Pridanou hodnotou projektu bude sieťovanie a vytvorenie užitočných kontaktov medzi mestami a organizáciami projektu.

DETLUP project officially started running a website.

DETLUP project officially started running a website.